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GCTLC Library

Welcome to the GCTLC Library. Use the search and filter options below to find green chemistry education resources and curriculum materials from community members from across the world. You can also submit a new resource to the library. For information for authors and reviewers, please consult the Guidelines for Submission and Review of Learning Objects.

 

Audience
Object Type
Green Chemistry Principles
toxicology for chemists curriculum orange cover with white text

History and Principles of Toxicology - (Toxicology for Chemists Curriculum - Module 1)

Summary

This module serves as a good first introduction to toxicology. In the first part of the module, students will learn and understand: the history of toxicology and its underlying principles; the progression of toxicology as a science; the development of regulatory agencies; key case studies that developed the field; and the paradox of uncertainty. In the second part of the module, students will ...

Type
Lecture or course slides/notes (e.g., PPT, Prezi, PDF), Lesson summaries, Assessments, Case studies
Provides information on how to assess the hazards of cleaning products using the labels.

STEMify Your Classroom Supply List

Summary

In this lesson, students will develop an evidence-based argument after investigating the product safety, performance, and cost of a variety of cleaning and disinfecting products designed to remove germs. Students will be introduced to principles of sustainable design, life-cycle thinking, and how to identify safer products for certifications.

Except where otherwise noted, this work by Saskia van ...

Type
Activities/Technology (e.g., in-class activities, online games, hands-on activities/manipulatives, outreach, virtual tools, etc.)
screenshot of the student questions on measuring the C-14 ratio.

USDA BioPreferred Standards Context Lesson Plan

Summary

Students will compare the basis of the derivatives for different plastics in order to determine their expected carbon-14 content. They will then compare ratios of carbon-14 to carbon-12 in plastic samples and categorize the sample according to its percent bio-based composition.

Teacher Background Information: This lesson is more of a context design to be used with an existing nuclear chemistry ...

Type
Activities/Technology (e.g., in-class activities, online games, hands-on activities/manipulatives, outreach, virtual tools, etc.)
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

"Greening Up" the Suzuki Reaction

Summary

An aqueous Suzuki reaction is described which highlights the facile preparation of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug analog under green conditions. While palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are common in most modern organic chemistry labs, they are often performed with hazardous solvents and large amounts of corrosive additives. Undertaken at the mid-undergraduate level ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

"New" Compounds from Old Plastics: Recycling PET Plastics via Depolymerization. An Activity for the Undergraduate Organic Lab

Summary

As landfills begin reaching their capacity and waste generation skyrockets, the world is being forced to take a harder look at recycling. Because it is currently estimated that plastics make up a quarter of landfill space, the recycling of plastics is a hot, current topic.

In this lab, a common plastic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), will be depolymerized by a simple hydrolysis reaction ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
Learning Objets

12 Principles of Green Chemistry

Summary

This is a poster of the 12 Principles of Green Chemistry. The poster can be printed out in varying sizes and is designed to be used as a teaching tool in a classroom, laboratory or manufacturing setting.

Please select the file below based on your audience location. For those in North America please use the MilliporeSigma file, for those outside North America please use the international Merck ...

Type
Lecture or course slides/notes (e.g., PPT, Prezi, PDF), Other
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

A Green Alternative to Aluminum Chloride Alkylation of Xylene

Summary

The alkylation of aromatic compounds is a very important industrial process. Typically these alkylations are performed using strong Lewis acids like aluminum trichloride as catalysts. However, the use of these catalysts often requires an aqueous work-up to remove the aluminum and also leads to mixtures of products due to carbocation rearrangement.

By using graphite this greener alkylation ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

A Green Polymerization of Aspartic Acid for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

Summary

Because of the ubiquity of polymers, chemists are looking for ways to make polymers renewable, biodegradable, and with less waste. In this laboratory chemistry students will have the opportunity to make poly(aspartate), a polymer that fulfills all the abovementioned goals.

The synthesis of this condensation polymer starts by simply heating neat aspartic acid for two hours to form poly(succinimide ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
Learning Objets

A Green(er) Redox Reaction

Summary

Green chemistry is an approach to practicing chemistry that strives to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. This focus on safety and environmental responsibility must always refer to a baseline measure, meaning that reactions can never be “green” but instead can always be “greener”.

This lab provides a great example of a greener approach to teaching reduction ...

Type
Laboratory experiment
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

A Green, Guided-Inquiry Based Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

Summary

This exercise demonstrates the regioselectivity of substituted aromatic systems while reducing the amount and hazards of the waste produced by the class. Although typical iodinations involve either high amounts of derivatization (i.e., nitration, then reduction to aniline, formation of diazonium, then ionization) or use of hazardous/expensive reagents (iodine and mercury acetate, bis(pyridine ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

A Greener Approach for Measuring Colligative Properties

Summary

This experiment teaches students the concept of colligative properties using renewable, benign, and biodegradable materials. Rather than using conventional solvents with high cryoscopic constants (which are oftentimes aromatics), fatty acids are used to explore freezing-point depression. By monitoring the change in freezing points of solutions with varying solute concentrations, students will be ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

A Greener Chemiluminescence Demonstration

Summary

This demonstration shows students a long-lasting, chemiluminescent reaction in light sticks without the toxic solvents. The instructor must prepare the chemiluminescent reagent, divanillyl oxalate, in a one-step synthetic procedure or can have the students prepare the reagent as part of an organic chemistry experiment.

Solvents acceptable for the chemiluminescence reaction are ethyl acetate or ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
Learning Objets

A greener tetraphenylporphyrin synthesis and metallation: an undergraduate teaching experiment

Summary

In this experiment, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (H2TPP) is synthesized on the microscale using an optimized procedure with a research-grade microwave apparatus (CEM Discover). This experiment can also be extended to the para-substituted phenyl derivatives.

Metalloporphyrins, with an array of metals, can then be synthesized using greener routes including mechanochemical methods (with ...

Type
Laboratory experiment
Logo of the Green Labs team at the University of Groningen, Netherlands.

A guidebook for sustainability in laboratories

Summary

This guidebook aims to improve lab users’ everyday practices to become more sustainable. Specifically, this guidebook provides practical suggestions on how to effectively use lab instruments and resources and how to acquire data. We provide advice to labs covering disciplines such as biology, chemistry, computational science, engineering, life sciences, materials sciences, medicine, pharmacy, and ...

Type
Assessments, Case studies, Videos (e.g., tutorials, presentations), Books
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

A Microscale Heck Reaction In Water

Summary

This laboratory experiment features the palladium-catalyzed Heck synthesis of (E)-4-acetylcinnamic acid from 4-iodoacetophenone and acrylic acid by mid-level undergraduates. Traditional Heck reaction organic solvents (e.g. acetonitrile) and base (e.g. triethylamine) are replaced by water and sodium carbonate respectively. This approach introduces fundamentals of green chemistry (aqueous and ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
Learning Objets

A Mole of Rice

Summary

The mole is a very large number used to measure the number of very small objects in chemistry. Using the mole to describe the number of a macroscopic object is not practical.

Earth’s diameter: https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/features/cosmic/earth_info.html#:~:text=I…

How much rice does China grow? 5-year average, 2018-2023 ...

Type
Laboratory experiment
Keywords
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

A Solvent-Free Baeyer–Villiger Lactonization for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: Synthesis of γ-t-Butyl-ε-caprolactone

Summary

The transformation of ketones into esters using peroxy acids was first reported in 1899. Since then, the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation has found itself an integral part of the organic chemist's toolkit. This modified Baeyer-Villiger is a great example of how a classic reaction can be made significantly greener. By eliminating the solvent you can avoid the hazards associated with dichloromethane (the ...

Type
Journal articles
Learning Objets

Acids, Bases, and pH

Summary

This lab is intended to introduce students to the concepts of acids, bases, and pH. Students determine the best suitable natural indicators to test the pH of the various household products and substances.

Type
Laboratory experiment
Learning Objets

Add ocean acidification to your existing lessons

Summary

This resource provides an overview of ways to discuss ocean acidification with high school students (14-16 years), including connecting increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with absorption by the oceans and the resulting increase in ocean pH. Topics include understanding pH as a logarithmic scale, the nature of acids (strong vs. weak), and connecting these topics to the U.N ...

Type
Activities/Technology (e.g., in-class activities, online games, hands-on activities/manipulatives, outreach, virtual tools, etc.), Lesson summaries, Small resource sets
Learning Objets

Add sustainable management of water to your existing lessons

Summary

This page through the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) website provides a collection of curriculum resources for high school-level students focused on the sustainable management of water. It includes a downloadable practical and simple microbiology experiment looking at the antimicrobial properties of halogens, as well as additional reading and information for putting water scarcity and management ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Activities/Technology (e.g., in-class activities, online games, hands-on activities/manipulatives, outreach, virtual tools, etc.), Small resource sets
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

Alkene Isomerization Using a Solid Acid as Activator and Support for a Homogeneous Catalyst

Summary

In this laboratory experiment, students explore the use of an immobilized Ni[P(OEt)3]4H2SO4 catalyst system to study the isomerization of 1-octene to trans- and cis- 2-octene. Nafion-H+ is a solid acid ion exchange polymer that both activates the air-sensitive transition metal catalyst and immobilizes the cationic species that can be characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy within the polymer matrix ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

An Asymptotic Approach to the Development of a Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory

Summary

This article provides a rationale and stepwise process for evaluating and improving the "greenness" of an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory curriculum. After emphasizing the educational value of sharing this process with students, effective risk assessment is discussed as an important tool for both evaluating and redesigning laboratory exercises. The greening process is illustrated by ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
Learning Objets

Antibacterial properties of the halogens

Summary

This RSC resource is a laboratory experiment for high school students to understand bacteriology presence in water, and explore methods to decontaminate water sources. Specifically, the experiment investigates the impacts of halogens on their potential antimicrobial properties.

Type
Laboratory experiment
Green Chemistry, Research and Safety are needed for the next generation

Approaches to Incorporating Green Chemistry and Safety into Laboratory Culture

Summary

This is an open access article linked from the Journal of Chemical Education article. It highlights a systems thinking approach to incorporating green chemistry and safety into laboratory culture. This article, emphasizes how framing green chemistry through the lens of systems thinking can build a culture of safety in the laboratory.

Type
Journal articles

Aqueous-Phase Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling. A Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

Summary

This experiment highlights both the importance of palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions and the need for finding greener solvents. The aqueous-phase coupling of iodobenzene and diethylphosphite is a great example of how a reaction can be made greener with a relatively straightforward modification. By simply sulfonating triphenylphosphine, students will be synthesizing a water-solubilizing ligand ...

Type
Journal articles
Learning Objets

Biomimicry Matching Game

Summary

Biomimicry is the science and art of emulating nature’s best biological ideas to solve human problems. The natural world is made up of very good green chemists. Consider animals and how they make their own shelter and get all the food they need from other things in nature. This is all done without having to use any gas or electricity or taking more than they need, and they produce little waste or ...

Type
Laboratory experiment

Blue is the new green: Valorization of crustacean waste

Summary

Annually, large amounts of marine biomass waste are generated around the world. In the case of crustaceans, an opportunity is lost to convert these chemically rich streams into essential and industrially relevant materials as these residues are often landfilled or directly discarded in the environment. Current processes to produce chemicals from marine biomass rely on wasteful, chemically- and ...

Type
Journal articles
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

Bringing State-of-the-Art, Applied, Novel, Green Chemistry to the Classroom by Employing the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards

Summary

In 1995 President Clinton introduced the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge (PGCC) Awards Program. The program was created to acknowledge companies and individuals who research and develop technologies "that promote pollution prevention and industrial ecology through a new EPA Design for the Environment partnership with the chemical industry." In this article, Dr. Michael Cann discusses two ...

Type
Activities/Technology (e.g., in-class activities, online games, hands-on activities/manipulatives, outreach, virtual tools, etc.), Journal articles
Learning Objets

Calorimetry

Summary

Three “coffee-cup” calorimetry experiments:
1) Use of the Law of Dulong and Petit to identify an unknown metal
2) Measurement of the enthalpy of sublimation of dry ice
3) Exploration of the relationship between surface area and the rate of heat transfer and the amount of heat transferred

Featuring contributions from Tamara Fitzjarrald

Type
Laboratory experiment
Two eggs wrapped in clear and opaque packaging

Can Biodegradable Materials Replace Plastic as Protective Food Packaging?

Summary

Many foods, such as fresh fruits, vegetables, or eggs, are packaged in plastic to protect them from damage during handling and transport. But is plastic the best choice? What if a more sustainable and biodegradable material could replace it? Researchers have begun exploring hydrogels—squishy materials that can hold a lot of water—as alternative packaging materials. In this science project, you ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Activities/Technology (e.g., in-class activities, online games, hands-on activities/manipulatives, outreach, virtual tools, etc.)
screen capture of the first page of the resource

Careers Highlighting Green Chemistry and Sustainable Design in Chemical or Product Manufacturing Companies

Summary

This resource provides a list of videos and written stories that can be used in career exploration with students in secondary and higher education. Resources highlight careers that make use of green chemistry and sustainable design principles.

Type
Small resource sets
Screen capture of the webpage hosting the resource

Careers in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Design: Video Series for Secondary Classrooms and Activity Guide

Summary

The Careers in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Design video series highlights professionals in Washington whose careers impact products or chemicals used in Washington. Each of these videos highlights a career that connects to green chemistry and sustainable design. In each video, the professionals share their reflections in response to a series of interview questions. The videos are five to ten ...

Type
Activities/Technology (e.g., in-class activities, online games, hands-on activities/manipulatives, outreach, virtual tools, etc.), Small resource sets, Videos (e.g., tutorials, presentations)
toxicology for chemists curriculum orange cover with white text

Case Studies, ChemToxTidbits, “Grab Bag” Folder (Toxicology for Chemists - Module 12)

Summary

Don’t have much time to prepare your lectures? Don’t know where to start with incorporating toxicology into existing class lectures or assignments? Not sure if you’re ready to adopt a full module? Do you just want access to the case studies, in-class assignments, homework assignments, and ChemToxTidbits slides? This folder contains all of these materials in a format easily accessible to you so ...

Type
Lecture or course slides/notes (e.g., PPT, Prezi, PDF), Lesson summaries, Case studies
Keywords
Learning Objets

Catalyzing the Development of Self-Efficacy and Science Identity: A Green Organic Chemistry CURE

Summary

To remain globally competitive, education in the United States must focus on retaining students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As laboratory courses have the potential to be powerful attractors or deterrents to a field, developing effective laboratory pedagogies is important to retain students in STEM. A course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) is one ...

Type
Journal articles
Learning Objets

Chemical Hazard Awareness Module

Summary

The Chemical Hazard Awareness Module is designed to be used in conjunction with a laboratory exercise that you currently use in your classroom or laboratory. We have outlined this exercise for use with Beyond Benign’s laboratory exercise “Reactions Lab” (found online here: http://www.beyondbenign.org/K12education/highschool.html). The Reactions Lab allows students to observe different types of ...

Type
Laboratory experiment
Learning Objets

Chemical or Physical Change?

Summary

This lab replaces traditional reactions involving chemicals such as cupric chloride (copper (II) chloride), 6 M hydrochloric acid, potassium hydroxide, and copper (II) sulfate. Students will understand the difference between chemical and physical changes while using all greener materials.

This lab is designed for when for students have minimal lab experience. The goal is to use observations of ...

Type
Laboratory experiment
Learning Objets

Chemists' role in the fight against disease

Summary

Chemists design, create and modify molecules to produce new and useful materials such as pharmaceuticals. Research and development of new medicines and vaccines against communicable and non-communicable diseases is vital in helping to achieve the UN’s sustainable development Goal 3: ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.

Type
Lecture or course slides/notes (e.g., PPT, Prezi, PDF), Activities/Technology (e.g., in-class activities, online games, hands-on activities/manipulatives, outreach, virtual tools, etc.), Lesson summaries
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

Chiral Compounds and Green Chemistry in Undergraduate Organic Laboratories: Reduction of a Ketone by Sodium Borohydride and Baker's Yeast

Summary

Chiral compounds can have unique properties and are becoming increasingly important in pharmaceutical, chemical, and agricultural industries. In this laboratory exercise, students compare and contrast chemical vs. enzyme-mediated procedures for introducing chirality into a molecule and gain experience with the principles and experimental techniques used to prepare and separate enantiomers. Over ...

Type
Journal articles
Learning Objets

Climate Change Chemistry

Summary

This curriculum unit is focused on exploring the scientific concepts of climate change, specifically within the field of chemistry. The unit aims to provide students with a foundational understanding of the chemistry involved in climate change models, predictions, and policy. The focus is on removing political connotations associated with the term “greenhouse gases” and restoring its scientific ...

Type
Laboratory experiment
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis. A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

Summary

In this set of experiments, students will be introduced to condensation reactions, green chemistry, and cocrystal-controlled solid-state synthesis. This type of solid-state synthesis is performed by first making cocrystals of the two reactants (in this case an anhydride and an amine) which brings the reactive functional groups in close proximity to one another, allowing for a reaction to occur ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

Comparative Methylation of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone: Chemoselectivity in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

Summary

This experiment demonstrates chemoselectivity in various reaction conditions. The mono or di-methylation of 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone can be controlled by either refluxing the reagents in tetraglyme or by simply heating without solvent. Also, this ether synthesis has been made greener by eliminating flammable THF and dangerous sodium hydride and by using a less toxic methylating agent. ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
A clover-shaped infographic with text showing that this learning object encompasses green chemistry, an amination experiement, and a "case study" class exercise for students.

Comparing Industrial Amination Reactions in a Combined Class and Laboratory Green Chemistry Assignment

Summary

In this published article (J. Chem. Educ., 2019, 96, 1, 93-99), we describe a green chemistry combined in-class and laboratory module for upper-year organic chemistry students. Through completing this combined module, students will compare and contrast the greenness of two industrially-relevant amination reactions to create the same target molecule. One of these amination reactions will be ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Activities/Technology (e.g., in-class activities, online games, hands-on activities/manipulatives, outreach, virtual tools, etc.), Journal articles
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

Determination of the Formula of a Hydrate: A Greener Alternative

Summary

The determination of the formula of a hydrate is an experiment that introduces students to many fundamental chemical concepts including stoichiometry, the notion of a mole, and nomenclature. In this experiment, the authors replaced the previously used calcium and barium salts because the latter is considered poisonous and tumorigenic, and both were considered waste after only one use. Instead ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Journal articles
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

Determination of the Heat of Combustion of Biodiesel Using Bomb Calorimetry. A Multidisciplinary Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment

Summary

This lab teaches important basic chemistry skills in the context of utilizing renewable feedstocks. In a three-week series of experiments, students will synthesize biodiesel from peanut oil and determine the heat of combustion, density, and cloud point of their product. Students will then use this information to evaluate the viability of biodiesel when compared to petroleum diesel.

Physical ...

Type
Journal articles
logo with green flask with green gem superimposed on part of flask

Developing and Disseminating NOP: An Online, Open-Access, Organic Chemistry Teaching Resource To Integrate Sustainability Concepts in the Laboratory

Summary

In order to instill an increased awareness of sustainability issues in future generations of scientists, the concepts and content of science courses must be changed. While important chemical concepts must be preserved, outdated, dangerous, and wasteful chemistry should be replaced by current, more sustainable alternatives. With these beliefs in mind, six German universities combined forces and ...

Type
Laboratory experiment, Activities/Technology (e.g., in-class activities, online games, hands-on activities/manipulatives, outreach, virtual tools, etc.), Journal articles
Learning Objets

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Summary

There is a growing need to investigate alternative energy resources due to the depletion of petroleum, a widely used energy source. Solar energy, or energy from the sun, is a free, readily available, plentiful resource that can be collected by solar cells to generate electricity.

Although solar cells have been around for a long time, their use for energy generation is not widespread. This is ...

Type
Laboratory experiment
Learning Objets

E-factor

Summary

E-factor is a metric that measures the overall efficiency in terms of waste generation of a chemical reaction. E-factor stands for the "Environmental Impact Factor" and is the ratio of how much waste is produced per unit of product made:

E factor= (mass of waste produced (g))/(mass of isolated product (g))

As a result, the lower the E-factor, the more sustainable and less wasteful the reaction ...

Type
Laboratory experiment
toxicology for chemists curriculum orange cover with white text

Ecotoxicology (Toxicology for Chemists - Module 9)

Summary

This module provides an introduction to ecotoxicology, an overview of exposure and thresholds, an overview of the main concepts and scales of ecotoxicology, and some applications of ecotoxicology. Using these materials, students will learn: the history of ecotoxicology; why ecotoxicology is important to sustainability; effects on levels of biological organization; relations to hazard and risk ...

Type
Lecture or course slides/notes (e.g., PPT, Prezi, PDF), Journal articles